jpUNfhzkiy - kl;lf;fsg;G kiwkhtl;l RUf;f tuyhW ...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    20-Apr-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    1
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of jpUNfhzkiy - kl;lf;fsg;G kiwkhtl;l RUf;f tuyhW ...

  • fpof;Ff; fiuNahuj;jpy; fpwp];jtk; te;j rhpj;jpuk; 15k; E}w;whz;by; Nghh;j;JNfah; fhyk; tiu nry; fpwJ. mUl;jpU. gpwah; irkd; b nfha;k;fuh Nghh;j; Jf;fy; murh; %d;whk; mUsg;gUf;F vOjpa fbjj; jpy; kl;lf;fsg;G ,sturiuj; jpUKOf;fpw;Fj; jahh ; nraj; jhff ; Fwpgg; pLfpwhh.; Nkhdp] ; gnulN; lh jiyikapy ; tej; FO 1549k ; MzL; kll; ff; sg;ig mile;jNghJ ,uhZtj;Jld; te;j gpuhd;rp];fd; rigf; FUf;fs; ,sturUf;F jpUOOf;F mspj;J nlhk; Y}ap]; vDk; ngaiuAk; ,l;ldh;.

    NkYk; ,sturpf;Fk; ,f;Foe;ijfSf;Fk; Flk; gj;jpdUf;Fk; kiw mwptpg;ghsh;fshy; jpUOOf;F mspf;fg;gl;lJ. 1547 Kjy; 1552k; Mz;L tiu xU td;dpr;rp ngz;kzp gdpr;rq;NfzpiaAk; mtsJ re;jjpapdiuAk; murhl;rp nra;jjhf jpU r. X. fdfnul;zk; jdJ kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lj;ij gw;wpa E}ypy; Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;.

    1549 Kjy; 1552k; Mz;L tiu jpUNfhzkiy epiyikapd;gb murhl;rp rk;ge;jkhf Vw;gl;l rh;r; irapdhy; jpUNfhzkiyapy; mur FLk;gj;ijr; Nrh;e;j 8 taJila td;dpa ,dj;J ,sturd; jd; 40 NrtfUlDk; rpj;jg;ghTlDk; kPd;gpbj; njhopy; elf;Fk; flw;fiug; gFjpapy; (J}j;Jf;Fb) jQ;rk; GFe;jhh;. ,th;fs; guth; ,d fpwp];jth;fshy; ed;F cgrhpf;fg;gl;ldh;. jkpo; nkhopapy; ed;F gapw;rp ngw;w mUl;jpU. Vd;w;f; FNt]; Na. R. ,sturh; FOitr; re;jpj;J MWjy; $wpdhh;. fpwp];jth;fspdJk; FUf;fspdJk; cgrhpg;ghy; G+hpg;gile;j ,sturUk; mtuJ FOTk; jkf;F jpU OOf;F mspf;Fk;gb Nfl;ldh;.

    td;dpa ,dj;J ,sturh; nlhd; mnyhd;Nrh vDk; ngaiug; ngw;whh;. guth; ,dj;ijr; Nrh;e;j fpwp];j th;fs; Nghh;j;JNfah; khYkpfspd; cjtpAld; Mapuk; Ngh; nfhz;l gilia cUthf;fp ,stu rUk; mtUld; te;j td;dpa Nrtfh;fSk; kPz;Lk; jpUNfhzkiyiaf; ifg;gw;w cjtp nra;J ,sturhpd; rpj;jg;ghit Ml;rpg; nghWg;gpy; tpl;l dh;. guth; ,df; fpwp];jth;fSk; jpUNfhzkiy apYk; mjd; Rw;Wg; Gwj;jpYk; jq;fp jpUNfhzkiy apYk; nfhl;bahtpYk; Kjy; fpwp];jt rkaj;ij cUthf;fpdhh;fs; vd;W jpU ntd; m. yq;Nf Fwpg;gpLfpwhh;. ,e;jpa flNyhuj;ij %ykhff; nfhz;l fj;Njhypf;f guth; r%fk; ,d;W nfhl;b ahtpy; ,Ug;gijAk; mUl;jpU. Nahrth]; mbfs; tUtjwF; KdN; g ,rr; Kfk ; ,Ugg; ijAk ; fhzyhk;. nfhNwwh ngh;dhz;Nlh¸ gPhp];.b th];̧ F&];, k];rnufh]; Nghd;w ngah;fs; kPd;gpbr; r%fk; guth; fpwp];jtUld; njhlh;G cs;sijj; njsp thf;FfpwJ.

    ,t;thW jpUNfhzkiy> kl;lf;fsg;G efu;fspy; Mjp fpwp];jt r%fk; cUntLj;jhYk; gy tUlq; fshf mJ FUf;fspd; cjtpapd;wp ,Ue;jJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf flNyhuk; jtpu;e;j kw;iwa ,lq;fspy; tpRthrk; guttpy;iy. aho;g;ghzj;jpy; kdkhw;wk; Vw;gl;lhYk; fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; rpwpa Kd;Ndw;wq; fNs Vw;gl;Ls;sd. jpUNfhzkiy> kl;lf;fsg;G gFjpfspYk; rpy fpwp];jtu;fs; ,Uf;fpd;whu;fs;. mtu;fisAk; ehk; guhkupf;f Ntz;Lk;| vd;W 1556 Mk; Mz;L nfhOk;G nfhr;rpd; Nkw;wpuhrdj;Jld; ,izf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

    1628Mk; Mz;L Nghh;j;Jf;Nfau; jpUNfhzkiy apYk; kl;lf;fsg;gpYk; Nfhl;il fl;Lk; tiu ,g; gFjpfspy; fpwp];jtu;fspd; tpRthrj;ij tsu;f;f FUf;fs; vt;tifapy; cjtpdhu;fs; vd;W Mjhuq; fs; ,y;iy. 1628k; Mz;bypUe;J FUf;fs; ,g; gFjpfspy; jq;fpapUe;jdu;. xt;nthU Nfhl;ilap Yk; xU rpwpa Nfhapy; ,Ue;jJ. khYkpfisg; guhkupf;f ,U FUf;fSk; ,Ue;jdu;. jpUNfhz kiyapy; mUl;jpU. nrg];bahd; b nghd;NrfhTk; kl;lf;fsg;gpy; mUl;jpU. md;udp b nrha;Nwh mb fSk; Nfhl;il ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdUf;F cjtp ahf ,Ue;J nfhz;L efupy; tho;e;j fpwp];jtu; fSf;Fk; cjtpahf ,Ue;jdu;.

    lr;Rf;fhuu; fhyj;jpy; fj;Njhypf;fUf;F Vw;gl;l nfhLikfs; kj;jpapYk; fpof;fpyq;ifapy; Nghh;j;; Jf;Nfau; fhyj;jpypUe;J fpwp];jtu;fs; tho;e;jpUf; fpd;wdu; vd;gjw;F ,d;W thOk; gwq;fpau; r%fk; rpwe;j Mjhukhf tpsq;FfpwJ. ,tu;fs; fpwp];jt tpRthrj;ijAk;> Nghh;j;;Jf;Nfau; nkhopiaAk;> fyhrhuj;ijAk; fl;bf;fhj;J filg;gpbj;J tUfp whu;fs;.

    1638k; Mz;L kl;lf;fsg;Gk; 1639y; jpUNfhz kiyAk; lr;Rf;fhuuhy; ifg;gw;wg;gl;ld. 1658,y; ,yq;if fiuNahuk; KOtJk; ,tu;fs; fl;Lg; ghl;by; te;jJ. ,ijj; njhlu;e;J lr;R muR ,yq; ifapy; fj;Njhypf;fiuAk; fj;Njhypf;f FUf;fis Ak; tijf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ. lr;R fk;gdpapd; epu; thfj;jpd;fPo; tUk; gFjpfs; midj;jpw;Fk; lr;R rPu;jpUj;j jpUr;rigNa mjpfhuG+u;tkhd rkak; vDk; rl;lj;njhFg;ig 1642Mk; Mz;L lr;R fpof; fpe;jpa fk;gdp ntspapl;lJ. ,jdhy; NtW rka topghLfs; jil nra;ag;gl;ld. NtW ehLfspy; ,J Nghd;w rl;lk; filg;gpbf;fg;glhtpl;lhYk; ,yq;ifapy; ,r;rl;lk; fLikahf epiwNtw;wg; gl;lJ. fj;Njhypf;f Myaq;fSk; fj;Njhypf;fu; $Lk; ,lq;fSk; ifg;gw;wg;gl;L FUf;fs; kiwe;j tho;T tho Ntz;ba #o;epiy Vw;gl;lJ.

    jpUNfhzkiy - kl;lf;fsg;G kiwkhtl;l RUf;f tuyhW

    WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWWW

    kl;lf;fsg;G kiwkhtl;l epidTkyh; eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 2012

  • fj;Njhypf;f topghLfs; jil nra;ag;gl;L> lr;R epu; thfj;jpd; fPo; ,aq;fpa ghlrhiyfSf;F kl;LNk fj;Njhypf;f gps;isfs; nry;y mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhu; fs.; jpUKOfF; > jpUkzk>; kuzrr; lqF; fs ; midj; Jk; lr;R rPu;jpUj;j rka rlq;Ffspd; gbNa elhj;j fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;ldu;. fj;Njhypf;f FUtpw;F jQ;r kspg;gJ nfhiyf; Fw;wj;jpw;F rkkhf fUjg;gl;lJ. 1658Mk; Mz;L Gul;lhjp khjk; 19k; jpfjp lr;R murpd; ntspaPl;bd; gb fj;Njhypf;f FUf;fSf;F jQr; kspgg; J jil nraa; gg; ll; J. kWP gtuf; s ; nfhiy nra;ag;gLthu;fs;. 1715 ij 11Mk; jpfjp ntspaPl; bdg; b fjN; jhypff; u ; ,ufrpakhfNth nghJthfNth $l;lk; $LjYk;> fj; Njhypf;f topghl;Lj; jyq ; fis guhkupjj; Yk ; jil nraa; gg; ll; d. 1715 Mtzp 8Mk ; jpfjp ntspalP b; dg; b Foei; jfSfF; fjN; jhypf; ff; FUf;fshy; my;yJ fj;Njhypf;f Kiwg;gb jpUKOf;F nfhLg;gJ jilnra;ag;gl;lJ. Nghu;j; Jf;Nfaupd; gpbapy; ,Ue;j gFjpfis lr;R muR KOikahf jkJ fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo; nfhz;Lte;j gpd; fj;Njhypf;fiu fLikahf tijf;fj; njhlq ; fpdu.; Vnddpy ; kj ntwpahy ; myy; J Njrpa FNuhjj; jpdhy; kl;Lky;y gy #o;epiyfshy; Vw;gLj;jg; gl;l mur nfhs;iffSf;fhfTk; fj;Njhypf;fiu tijj;jdu;. lr;R murpd; Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpy; Nghu;j; Jf;Nfa tk;rj;jtu; gyu; ,yq;ifapy; ,Ue;jdu;. lrR; murpd ; flL; gg; hlb; y ; thoe; j; mNefu ; fjN; jhypf; fNu. fj;Njhypf;f kjk; kiwKfkhf tsu;e;jjhYk; Nghu;j;Jf;Nfa ghi\ njhlu;e;J eilKiwapy; ,Ue;jjhYk; Nghu;j;Jf;Nfa mDjhg miy ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl te;jJ. lr;R muR ahUila miog;gpd; Ngupy; te;J ahUila cjtpAld; Nghu;j;Jf;Nfa muir tpul;babj;J fj;Njhypf;fiu nfhLikg;gLj; jpaNjh mNj fz;b murNdhL gifj;J cwit Kwpf;f Ntz;ba #o;epiy Vw;gl> ,yq;if jPtpy; njhlu;e;J ,Ug;gJ ghJfhg;gw;wJ vd;gij lr;R muR czu;e;jJ. ifg;gw;wpa kw;iwa ehLfspy; Kjy; vjpu;g;Gf;Fg;gpd; fj;Njhypf;fiu jkJ kj top ghLfSf;F mDkjpj;jJ. FUf;fisAk; Myaq;f isAk; kPz;Lk; ,aq;f itj;jhYk; ,yq;ifapy; vjpu;khwhfNt ele;jJ. fj;Njhypf;f Myaq;fs;> fy;Y}upfs;> fy;tp epyaq;fs; vd;gtw;iwf; ifg; gw;wp jiu kl;lkhf;fpdhu;fs;. FUf;fis ehL flj;jp> ,yq;iff;F tUk; FUf;fSf;Fk; mtu;f Sf;F jQ;rk; nfhLg;gtu;fSf;Fk; kuz jz;lid nfhLg;gjhfTk; rl;lk; ,aw;wpdhu;fs;. lr;R rka Kiwg;gb jpUkzk; nra;aTk; kuzr;rlq;Ffs; elj;jTk; gps;isfis jkJ ghlrhiyfspy; gbf;f fl;lhag;gLj;jpAk; te;jdu;. lr;R epu;thfj;jpd; fPo; Ntiy ghu;g;gtu;fs; kl;Lky;y ,yq;if rk;gpujha fpuhkj;jiytUk; fj;Njhypf;f tpRthrj;ij jFjp aw;wjhf gpufldg;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd gyte;jg; gLj;jg;gl;ldu;. ,t;thW Gfo; ngw;w ,yq;if rupj;jpu Mrpupau; mUl;jpU. rp.Qh. ngNuuh Nr.r $Wfpwhu;.

    lr;R murhy; nfhLikg;gLj;jg;gl;l fj;Njhypf;fu; gy fhykhf kiwe;j tho;T tho;e;jdu;. rpyu; tpR thrj;jpy; epiyaha; ,uhky; cyf ,d;gq;fSf;F mbikahfp tpRthrj;jpy; ,Ue;J jtwpdhu;fs;. Mdhy; mUl;jpU. NahNrg; th]; mbfs; tUk; tiu FUf;fs; ,y;yhkypUe;Jk; gyu; Jd;gq;fis Ak; vjpu;j;J tpRthrj;jpy; epiiyaha; ,Ue;jhu;fs;. lr;R murhy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;l mr;RWj;jy;fNsh jz; lidfNsh ,tu;fis tpRthrj;jpypUe;J mirf;f

    Kbatpyi; y. jzl; id fhuzkhfTk ; mur njhopy; ngWtjw;fhfTk; gy fj;Njhypf;fu; Gjpa tpRthrj; jpy; jk;ik cWjpg;gLj;jpdhu;fs;. Mdhy; mNdfu; Md;k topfhl;bfs; ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; mr;RWj;jy; fisAk; cyf NrhjidfisAk; ntd;W tpR thrj;jpy; epiyaha; ,Ue;J eL ,utpYk; jq;fs; tPLfspy; rkaf;$l;lq;fis elj;jp te;jhu;fs; vd;W 1848Mk; Mz;L ntspaplg;gl;l fj;Njhypf;fg; gj;jpupif Fwpg;gpLfpwJ. rpwe;j mwpthspAk; rupj;jpu MrpupaUk; fj;Njhypf;fuy;yhjtUkhd nldd;l; ,ku;rd; gpuG lr;R muR fhyj;jpy; fj;Njhypf;fupd; tpRthrj;ijAk; jsuh cWjpiaAk; gw;wp ep&gpf; fpwhu;. lr;Rf;fhuuhy; tijf;fg;gl;lhYk; Nwhkd; fj; Njhypf;fj;jpUr;rig ,yq;ifapy; jd; epiyiaAk; nry;thf;ifAk; epiyehl;baJ. ,ij lr;R muR ,yq;ifia ifg;gw;wpa gpd;Gk; mq;F epiyj;jp Ue;j Nghu;j;Jf;Nfa rejjpapdu; ntspg;gLj;jpdhu; fs;. Coy;fspdhNyh fl;lhaj;jpdhNyh J}z;lg; glhj mNef rpq;fstuhYk; jkpouhYk; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; fj;Njhypf;f kjk; mDrupf;fg;gl;lJ vd;W nldd;l; ,ku;rd; gpuG Fwpg;gpLfpwhu; fz;b murdpd; miog;gpd; Ngupy; lr;R murpd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,Ue;j gFjpfspy; tho;e;j fj;Njhypf;fu; fz;b ,uhr;rpaj; jpy; Fbaku;e;J epiy epWj;jpf; nfhz;lhu;fs;.

    mUl;jpU. Nahrg; th]; mbfs; lrR; muR ,yqi; fiaf ; ifgg; ww; p 30 MzL; fSf;Fg; gpd>; 1687,y>; fjN; jhypff; tpRthrji; j kzP L; k ; fl;b naOg;g Vio Ntlk; G+z;L> Nfhthtpy; ,Ue;J kiwgug;G gzpahsuhfpa mUl;jpU. Nahrg; th]; mbfs; kd;dhUf;F te;J 24 tUlq;fs; fLik ahf cioj;jhu;. 1694/1695Mk; Mz;lstpy; fpof;F fiuNahuj;jpw;F jd; Kjy; gazj;ij Nkw;nfhz; lhu;. 1624,y; ,Ue;Nj kl;lf;fsg;gpy; jhz;ltd; ntsp vDk; ,lj;jpy; fz;b murDf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd xU G+kpapy; fj;Njhypf;f Myankhd;W ,Ue;jjhf kuG $WfpwJ. xU ,uT ,t;thyaj;jpy; fj;Njhypf; fuhy; kq;fsthu;j;ij nrgk; nrhy;yg;gl;lNghJ mUl;jpU. Nahrg; th]; mbfs; mq;F nrd;W jhd; xU FU vd;W xU rpyUf;F jk;ik ntspg;gLj;jp dhu;. gpd;G mtu; jpUkiwia kWjypf;Fk; xUt uhy; fhl;bf;nfhLf;fg;gl;L kuj;jpuy; fl;lg;gl;L firab thq;fpdhu;. kl;lf;fsg;igg; gw;wp jpU fdfnul;dk; vOJk; NghJ gpd;tUkhW $Wfpd;whu;. me;ehl;fspy; tho;e;j goq;Fb kf;fspd; $w;Wg;gb kl;lf;fsg;gpy; 1624,y; Kjy; fj;Njhypf;f Myak; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;W 1868Mk; Mz;L khrp 2Mk; jpfjp vOjpa fbjj;jpy; mUl;jpU. A.M Ugpahf; (Rauffiac) mbfs; Fwpg;gpLfpwhu;. jhz;ltd;ntsp gioa Myaj;NjhL ,t;thyak; milahsk; fhl; lg;gl;lJ. lr;R fyhgid Muk;gkhfpaJ. ,r;#o; epiyapy; jhd; fj;Njhypf;f tpRthrj;ij GJg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vDk; Nehf;fj;NjhL mUl;jpU. Nahrg; th]; mbfs; ,k;khtl;lj;jpw;F te;jhu;. mNj Gdpj FU kl;lf;fsg;gpy; kq;fsthu;j;ij nrgk; nrhy;yg; gl;lNghJ xU rpyUf;F jk;ik ntspg;gLj;jpdhu;. gpd;G mtu; jpUkiwia kWjypf;Fk; xUtuhy; fhl;bf;nfhLf;fg;gl;L tk;kp kuj;jpy; fl;lg;gl;L firahy; mbf;fg;gl;lhu;. ,k;kuk; gy fj;Njhypf;f uhy; juprpf;fg;gl;L tzq;fg;gl;lJ. rpwpa MyaNkh jPf;fpiuahf;fg;gl;L R&gNkh mjpraj;